THE COMPARATIVE OF SIMILARITIES AND DISSIMILARITIES BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIA
A. THE SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIA
In English, the prepositions are: in, at, on, to, from. Indonesian language also has preposition, they are: di, ke, dari. Preposition in, at, on (di) indicates that the action occurs in the place indicated by the following noun and there is no movement. Preposition to (ke) indicates movement toward, and the preposition from (dari) indicates movement away.
– My book is on the table.
Buku saya di atas meja.
– The lecturer comes from Singapore.
Dosen itu datang dari Singapura.
2. Active And Passive Voice
If someone does something to someone or something, the verb that describes that action is a transitive verb. The one who does the action is the agent. The person or thing that receives the action is the recipient. Both of them, English and Indonesia language have the similarities in active and passive sentence. In passive sentence must be an object in active sentence that will be passive. The form of verb must be in past participle (V III).
– She reads a book.
A book is red by her.
Dia (pr) membaca sebuah buku.
Sebuah buku di baca oleh dia (pr).
There is affix in English and Indonesian language. The affixes are prefix (awalan), and suffix (akhiran).
English: prefix = Un- ( Uneasy, Uncomfortable)
Dis- ( Disable, Disinfected)
Re- (Redo, Renegotiate)
Be- (Befriend, Bespectacled)
Suffix = -able ( comfortable)
Indonesia: prefix = Ber-
Suffix = -an
4. Interrogative Pronoun
English and Indonesian have interrogative pronoun, they are who(siapa), whom (siapa,untuk objek), whose (kepunyaan siapa), what (apa), where (dimana), when (kapan), how (bagaimana/berapa), why (mengapa) and which (yang mana).
Examples: when do you come?
Kapankah kamu datang?
5. Relative Pronoun
Relative pronoun in English are who, which, that, whom, and whose. In Indonesian language, relative pronoun is only “yang”. Two sentences can be combine become one by using relative pronoun “yang”.
Examples: The woman who wears a pink dress is my friend.
Wanita yang memakai baju warna merah jambu adalah teman saya.
Both in English and Idonesian language have conjunction. They are but (tetapi), because (karena), and (dan), after (sesudah), while (ketika), etc.
Examples: She is beautiful but stupid.
Dia cantik tapi bodoh.
7. Exclamatory Sentence
Exclamatory sentence in English uses the word “how and what”. In Indonesian language only use “betapa”.
Examples: How beautiful the girl is.
Betapa cantiknya gadis itu.
B. The Dissimilarities Between English and Indonesian Language
In English, verb can be divided into regular and irregular verb. These verbs are used in past tense and past perfect tense form.
In Indonesian language there is no division.
Examples: She drank a cup of tea.
Dia minum secangkir teh.
a indefinite article
an: vowels and the word that starts with letter “h”.
In Indonesian language articles can be used in all alphabets.
3. Demonstrative Pronoun: this, these, that, those
In English, the use of demonstrative pronoun depends on the noun in the sentence. “This” for singular noun, and it is near the subject. “These” for plural nouns. It comes from “this”. If the noun is far away from the subject, we will use “that” for singular noun and ‘those” for plural noun.
4. Quantifiers: a few, a little, much, many, a lot of, most, some, any, enough.
In English, the uses of quantifiers based on the noun (countable or uncountable).
5. Possessive Case
Possessive case is two word which is joined by adding apostrophe ‘s. plural noun is only adding apostrophe ‘s.
Examples: Those are my sisters’ books.
This is Rika’s pen.
There is no addition apostrophe, a word or something in Indonesian language.
In English, there is distinguish in gender, moreover in Indonesian, there is no the distinguish. Noun gender is masculine (male), Feminine (female).